The bureaucratic reform working group aims to strengthen evidence-based decision making process through knowledge exchange and wider engagement with relevant stakeholders.KSI facilitates joint dialogue and cooperation between partners and government throughbi-monthlythematic discussion forums.
Thethematic discussion on 29th February was held in Sari Pan Pacific Hotel, presenting the research proposal of University of Indonesia-Center for Political Studies(PUSKAPOL UI) in relation with Gender and Bureaucracy, and the initial findings of Local Economic Governance Study in 33 Provincial Capitals in Indonesia by theRegional Autonomy Watch(KPPOD). However, the followingarticle will only present further on the Study on Gender and Bureaucracy.
PUSKAPOL UI develops political research,for,advocacy and promotes political governance that is democratic,fair, and equal. Through KSI's 2015/2016 core funding grant scheme, PUSKAPOL UI implements the research on Gender and Bureaucracy: Selection and Promotion of Women,inSenior Executive Service.
In general,relationship pattern between women and men in public policy, including in Indonesia, still shows a large gap. In relation with this, data from,the World Economic Forum Gender Gap Report 2015 placed Indonesia in the 92nd rank of 145 countries for Gender Gap Index. World Development Indicators in 2014 has recorded the participation of female workforce in Indonesia at only 51,4%, while in Thailand and Vietnam, this number has reached,64,3% and73%. In Indonesia, Women Research Institutes states that there is a positive correlation between the increased female political representation in the,general,election since 1999 and the decrease of Maternal Mortality Rate.
Data,from the National Social Economic Survey(Susenas) states that the ratio of 15 year old female population with undergraduate degree per 100 males continues to increase since 2006. Similar trend is also experienced by women with postgraduate degree (Master and Doctor). This is a social process, which accumulatively becomes an input to the improvement of human development, economic growth, and competitiveness. Therefore, these potential resources need to be promoted to enter the heart of the government. A balanced gender representation in decision making and public bureaucracy is one of the sources of credibility and legitimacy of a democratic government.
Datafrom National Civil Service Agency (BKN) shows that from 2011 to 2014, there has been an increase of female proportion in structural position of Echelon II, namely from 8% to 16%.This,increase is also seen in structural position of Echelon I: from9% to 21%. However, this number has not reached a critical mass of 30-40%, a critical proportion that,is believed to be able to change bureaucracy and political institutions to be responsive to gender equality. As an illustration, research fromPUSKAPOL UI 2011 reported that from 503.554 Civil Servants in 34 ministries, only 29.221 people (equivalent to 5,8%)had,structural positions. From this number, only 22, 38% of the structural positions were filled by female civil servants. The gap of this proportion became,even more so when viewed from the,grade of the structural positions.The largest proportion of female structural officials,was,in the lower grade (III and IV), while on the top level, there,was,only an average of 1 female from 10 echelon I officials.
Findings of the research from PUSKAPOL UI 2011 indicatedthat:
- The view of gender equality based on competence cannot address the issue of female proportion gap in bureaucratic structural position, because it places this issue as gender neutral. This gender neutral condition places female engagement in public domain without a control over social, economic, and political capital, therefore it is not strong enough to influence a change, in which it only occurs in a limited scale.
- Bureaucratic reforms directed to efforts to prevent and accelerate the eradication of corruption, collusion, and nepotism (KKN), to create good governance, and to deliver effective public service, need a new point of view in looking at equality and competency issue, making women, which is half of the total population,of Indonesia,with double burden, can maximize their contributions as citizens.
- Gender equality is the key element in building an effective bureaucracy and strengthening the voice of women among policy makers and leaders in Indonesia. The existence of women in bureaucracy and politics can improve the welfare of women groups by representing, overseeing, and influencing policy making agenda and process. This is a picture of an ideal bureaucracy: representative democracy, making it more likely to accommodate various social problems.
- Women need to be present at the heart of the government so that discrimination can be eliminated,while integrating women into development and increasing representation of women in the public sector.
The expectation is that next June, PUSKAPOL UI will disseminate its research findings to policy makers so that the gender perspective can be integrated into the policy of promoting and recruiting Indonesian women to high bureaucratic positions.